The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize should be awarded "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."
Alfred Nobel's will stated that the prize should be awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Norwegian Parliament. The Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, Norway, in the presence of the king, on December 10 (the anniversary of Nobel's death), and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm, Sweden. "In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway. Under the eyes of a watching world, the Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount." The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is held at the Oslo City Hall, followed the next day by the Nobel Peace Prize Concert, which is broadcast to more than 450 million households in over 150 countries around the world. The concert has received worldwide fame and the participation of top celebrity hosts and performers. The selection of Nobel Peace Prize winners sometimes causes controversy, as the list of winners includes people who formerly used violent methods of problem-solving, but then later made exceptional concessions to non-violence in the attempt to achieve peace.
Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat As Qudwa al-Hussaeini
was born on 24 August 1929 in Cairo**, his father a textile merchant who was a Palestinian with some Egyptian ancestry, his mother from an old Palestinian family in Jerusalem. She died when Yasir, as he was called, was five years old, and he was sent to live with his maternal uncle in Jerusalem, the capital of the British Mandate of Palestine. He has revealed little about his childhood, but one of his earliest memories is of British soldiers breaking into his uncle's house after midnight, beating members of the family and smashing furniture.
In late 2004, after effectively being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat became ill and fell into a coma. While the precise cause of death remains unknown, doctors spoke of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and cirrhosis, but no autopsy was performed. Arafat died on November 11, 2004 at the age of 75.
Later in his career, Arafat engaged in a series of negotiations
with the government of Israel to end the decades-long conflict between that country and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit. His political rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists, often denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government. In 1994, Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. During this time, Hamas and other militant organizations rose to power and shook the foundations of the authority Fatah under Arafat had established in the Palestinian territories.
(Bengali:, pronounced Muhammôd Iunus) (born 28 June 1940) is a Bangladeshi banker and economist. He previously was a professor of economics and is famous for his successful application of microcredit - the extension of small loans. These loans are given to entrepreneurs too poor to qualify for traditional bank loans. Yunus is also the founder of Grameen Bank. In 2006, Yunus and the bank were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, "for their efforts to create economic and social development from below." Yunus himself has received several other national and international honors. He is the author of Banker to the Poor and a founding board member of Grameen Foundation. In early 2007 Yunus showed interest in launching a political party in Bangladesh named Nagorik Shakti (Citizen Power), but later discarded the plan. He is one of the founding members of Global Elders. Yunus also serves on the board of directors of the United Nations Foundation, a public charity created in 1998 with entrepreneur and philanthropist Ted Turner’s historic $1 billion gift to support United Nations causes. The UN Foundation builds and implements public-private partnerships to address the world’s most pressing problems, and broadens support for the UN.
Muhammad Yunus at Chittagong Collegiate School, while visiting the school in 2003.
The third oldest of nine children, Yunus was born on 28 June 1940 to a Muslim family in the village of Bathua, by the Boxirhat Road in Hathazari, Chittagong, then in British India (now in Bangladesh). His father was Hazi Dula Mia Shoudagar, a jeweler, and his mother was Sofia Khatun. His early childhood years were spent in the village. In 1944, his family moved to the city of Chittagong, and he was shifted to Lamabazar Primary School from his village school. By 1949, his mother was afflicted with psychological illness. Later, he passed the matriculation examination from Chittagong Collegiate School securing the 16th position among 39,000 students in East Pakistan. During his school years, he was an active Boy Scout, and traveled to West Pakistan and India in 1952, and to Canada in 1955 to attend Jamborees. Later when Yunus was studying at Chittagong College, he became active in cultural activities and won awards for drama acting. In 1957, he enrolled in the department of economics at Dhaka University and completed his BA in 1960 and MA in 1961.
Born 28 June 1940
Chittagong, British India
Occupation Founder of Grameen Bank
Religious beliefs Islam
Kofi Atta Annan,
GCMG (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1 January 1997 to 1 January 2007. Annan and the United Nations were the co-recipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize.
Early years and family
Kofi Annan was born to Victoria and Henry Reginald Annan in the Kofandros section of Kumasi, Ghana. He is a twin, a respected status in Ghanaian culture. His twin sister Efua Atta, who died in 1991, shares the middle name 'Atta', which in Fante and Akan means 'twin
Annan's family was part of the country's elite; both of his grandfathers and his uncle were tribal chiefs. His father was Asante and Fante; his mother was Fante. Annan's father worked for a long period as an export manager for the Lever Brothers cocoa company.
Annan is married to Nane Maria Annan, a Swedish lawyer and artist who is the half-niece of Raoul Wallenberg. He has two children, Kojo and Ama, from his previous marriage to a Nigerian woman, Titi Alakija, whom he divorced in the late 1970s. Annan also has one stepchild, Nina Cronstedt de Groot, Nane's daughter from a previous marriage.
His middle name Atta is that of an elder twin. The name Annan can indicate that a child was the fourth in the family, but in Annan's family at some time in the past it became a family name, which Annan inherited from his parents.
In the Ghanaian tradition, Children are named according to the day of the week on whihc they were born. Kofi in Akan is the name that corresponds with Friday.
In his earlier years at the UN, Annan's last name had widely been mispronounced as rhyming with "anon"; Annan has let it be known that he pronounces his name to rhyme with "canon" ænən
(IPA: [abdəlazɪz butəflika]) (Arabic: (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999
His father, Ahmed Bouteflika, was born in Tlemcen. Ahmed Bouteflika was married to two women: Belkaïd Rabia and Ghezlaoui Mansouriah (the mother of the current President)
bdelaziz Bouteflika was born on March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco, he was the first child of his mother and the second child of his father (Fatima, his half-sister, preceded him). Bouteflika has three half-sisters (Fatima, Yamina, and Aïcha), as well as four brothers (Abdelghani, Mustapha, Abderahim and Saïd) and one sister (Latifa). Saïd serves as Abdelaziz Bouteflika's personal physician, and is said by some to be an important figure in Bouteflika's inner circle of advisers.
Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been married since August 1990 and has no children. His wife, Amal Triki, is a daughter of Yahia Triki, an ex-diplomat.
statements of their achievements
We hope that upon perusal of our letter, you will consider supporting peace and reconciliation in Algeria through nominating President Bouteflika for the Nobel Peace Prize 2008 for his outstanding role as a peace-maker since he was elected to the Presidency of the Republic in 1999.
He thus saved the country from destruction and spared not only Algeria, but Africa and Mediterranean Basin countries from the scourge of terrorism.
We therefore express our proposal moving the following:
• Convinced of the need to continue this process of resolving differences through dialogue and of the necessity to consolidate peace among Algerians after a serious crisis.which claimed the lives of some of the best of the country's citizens.
• Also convinced that President Abdelaziz Bouteflika has contributed to maintaining peace in Algeria and in other countries.
• Recognizing in particular his commitment to end the bloody conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea.
• Further recognizing that President Bouteflika's pragmatism and diplomatic strategy helped put an end to a long war between Iraq and Iran.
• Sharing his vision as a man of peace and as an experienced diplomat who consolidated socio-economic and political relations between African countries and the European Union in support of sustainable development.
• Welcoming President Bouteflika's political choices, and strategic sense which have led Algeria to national reconciliation, to a return to peace and stability, to the strengthening of the rule of law and to democratic practice, as well as an open economic and investment policy and to sound management of public funds.
• Believing that for these outstanding initiatives and the courage their implementation had required, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika deserves to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
• Therefore invites the Nobel Peace Prize Committee to consider awarding this prize to His Excellency Abdelaziz Bouteflika as an enlightened peace-maker in his country and abroad.
Sign the petition
The Bouteflika Nobel Peace Prize 2008 petition to Peace was written by bouteflika and is hosted free of charge at GoPetition
written The justification for my nominees
I think that President Abdelaziz Bouteflika is well-deserved Nobel Peace Prize given to put the draft peace and national interest and backed by support for peace in this country
In addition to seeking to spread peace and security within countries and spread brotherhood among Algerians and the peace treaties with other countries, especially countries of the Maghreb
And the success of this project is a proof of its success and entitlement to the well-deserved award
So I hope to win to win the Nobel Peace Prize for 2009
was born on 6 July 1935, to a farming family, in a small hamlet located in Taktser, Amdo, northeastern Tibet. At the age of two the child, who was named Lhamo Dhondup at that time was recognized as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso. The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and patron saint of Tibet. Bodhisattvas are enlightened beings who have postponed their own nirvana and chosen to take rebirth in order to serve humanity
In September 1987 His Holiness proposed the Five Point Peace Plan for Tibet as the first step towards a peaceful solution to the worsening situation in Tibet. He envisaged that Tibet would become a sanctuary; a zone of peace at the heart of Asia, where all sentient beings can exist in harmony and the delicate environment can be preserved. China has so far failed to respond positively to the various peace proposals put forward by His Holiness.
The Five Point Peace Plan
In his address to members of the United States Congress in Washington, D.C. on 21 September 1987, His Holiness proposed the following peace plan, which contains five basic components:
1. Transformation of the whole of Tibet into a zone of peace.
2. Abandonment of China's population transfer policy that threatens the very
existence of the Tibetans as a people.
3. Respect for the Tibetan people's fundamental human rights and democratic
4. Restoration and protection of Tibet's natural environment and the abandonment
of China's use of Tibet for the production of nuclear weapons and dumping of
5. Commencement of earnest negotiations on the future status of Tibet and of
relations between the Tibetan and Chinese peoples.
Martin Luther King,
Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American clergyman, activist and prominent leader in the American civil rights movement. His main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States and he is frequently referenced as a human rights icon today.
A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957, serving as its first president.
King's efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history.
In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent means. By the time of his death in 1968, he had refocused his efforts on ending poverty and opposing the Vietnam War, both from a religious perspective.
Martin Luther King
King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. He was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 and Congressional Gold Medal in 2004; Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a U.S. national holiday in 1986
Martin Luther King, Jr., was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the son of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. King's father was born "Michael King", and Martin Luther King, Jr. was originally named "Michael King, Jr.", until the family traveled to Europe in 1934 and visited Germany. His father soon changed both of their names to Martin in honor of the German Protestant Martin Luther. He had an older sister, Willie Christine King, and a younger brother Alfred Daniel Williams King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind
King married Coretta Scott, on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents' house in her hometown of Heiberger, Alabama. King and Scott had four children; Yolanda King, Martin Luther King III, Dexter Scott King, and Bernice King. King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama when he was twenty-five years old in 1954 Theodore Roosevelt (IPA: /ˈroʊzəvɛlt/; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), also known as T.R., and to the public (but never to friends and intimates) as Teddy, was the twenty-sixth President of the United States. A leader of the Republican Party and of the Progressive Party, he was a Governor of New York and a professional historian, naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier. He is most famous for his personality: his energy, his vast range of interests and achievements, his model of masculinity, and his "cowboy" image. Originating from a story from one of Roosevelt's hunting expeditions, Teddy bears are named after him.
Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari
(pronounced (born 23 June 1937)
is a former President of Finland (1994–2000), 2008 Nobel Peace Prize winner and United Nations diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work.
Ahtisaari was a UN Special Envoy at the Kosovo status process negotiations, aimed at resolving a long-running dispute in Kosovo, which declared its independence from Serbia in 2008. In October 2008 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"
uth and early career
was born in Viipuri, Finland (now Vyborg, Russia).
His father, Oiva Ahtisaari (whose grandfather Julius Marenius Adolfsen had emigrated with his parents to Finland in 1872 from Tistedalen in southern Norway) took Finnish citizenship in 1929 and changed his surname from Adolfsen in 1937. The Continuation War took Martti's father to the front as a non-commissioned officer army mechanic, while his mother, Tyyne, moved to Kuopio with her son to escape immediate danger from the war. Kuopio was where Ahtisaari spent most of his childhood and first attended school "Kuopion Lyseo".
In 1952, Martti Ahtisaari moved to Oulu with his family to seek employment. There he continued his education in a well-known high school "Oulun Lyseo" (among its former students are two other presidents of Finland: Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg and Kyösti Kallio) and graduated in 1952. He also joined the local YMCA. After completing his military service (Ahtisaari holds the rank of captain in the Finnish Army Reserve), he began to study through a distance-learning course at Oulu teachers' college. There he was able to live at home while attending the two-year course which enabled him to qualify as a primary-school teacher in 1959. Besides his native language, Finnish, Ahtisaari speaks Swedish, French, English, and German.
In 1960, he moved to Karachi, Pakistan, to lead the YMCA's physical education training establishment, where he became accustomed to a more international environment. As well as managing the students' home, Ahtisaari's job involved training teachers, which suited him well. He returned to Finland in 1963 and attended Helsinki University of Technology. He became active in non-governmental organizations (NGOs) responsible for aid to developing countries, and joined the international students' organization AIESEC. In 1965, he joined the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland in its Bureau for International Development Aid, eventually becoming the assistant head of the department. In 1968, he married Eeva Irmeli Hyvärinen (1936– ). The couple have one son, Marko Ahtisaari, a noted
musician and producer